CLASSICAL TURKEY

CLASSICAL TURKEY

This eleven-day tour invites you to explore some of Turkey’s greatest cultural treasures, from the cosmopolitan metropolis of Istanbul to the spectacular fairy-chimney landscape of Cappadocia and the ancient battlefields of Troy.

ITINERARY

Day 1:  Arrival

Arrive in Istanbul

Our representative will meet you at the airport and accompany you to your hotel in a private car.  Rest, relax, and refresh yourself at your own pace.  As today is an arrival day, there is no scheduled program.

The only city in the world to span two continents, Istanbul is a fascinating metropolis that has long entranced travelers as a bridge between Europe and Asia, Islam and Christianity, Occident and Orient.  Serving as a capital for the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires, Istanbul boasts thousands of cultural sites dating from the sixth millennium BCE to the present day.  Istanbul endures as the cosmopolitan heart of the Republic of Turkey, its financial center, cultural hub, and most populous city.  Any visit to Turkey must begin here.

Should you arrive early and feel ready to venture out, we will take the opportunity to visit sights not indicated in the itinerary.

Day 2:  Full Day Istanbul Old City

After breakfast, your guide will meet you in the hotel reception lobby.  Our first visit will be to the Topkapı Sarayı (Palace), home to the Ottoman emperors for more than five centuries.  Stroll through the grounds at a leisurely pace, imagining the opulence of Topkapı Sarayı at the height of Ottoman power, its grounds filled with strong rulers, ministers, and awe-struck visitors.  The next stop on your tour will be one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture, the Hagia Sophia (literally the Church of “Holy Wisdom”), serving in succession as the seat of the Orthodox Patriarchy of Constantinople, a mosque, and (currently) a museum.  Wander slowly through the cathedral to take in the spectacular mosaic scenes of the Virgin Mother, Jesus, the saints, many biblical narratives, and Byzantine emperors and their entourage.  After lunch, we will cross the Sultan Ahmet Gardens to visit the Blue Mosque, with its wonderfully curvaceous exterior featuring a cascade of domes and six slender, fluted minarets.  Beautifully crafted blue Iznik tiles adorn the interior and give the building its unofficial but commonly used name.  Next we will walk through the Hippodrome, the athletic and social center of ancient Constantinople.  Today the park contains the Serpent Column of three intertwined snakes, the Obelisk of Pharaoh Thutmose III, and the Fountain of Kaiser Wilheim II.  En route to the Grand Bazaar, we will stop at the sixth-century Basilica Cistern, constructed using 336 columns, many of which were salvaged from ruined temples and feature finely carved capitals.  Its symmetry and sheer grandeur of conception are quite breathtaking, and its cavernous depths make a great retreat on summer days.  The Grand Bazaar itself is one of the oldest and largest covered markets in the world and remains an integral part of daily local life among city residents and visitors alike.  With sixty-one covered streets, more than three thousand shops, five hundred stalls, and eighteen fountains, the Grand Bazaar attracts between 250,000 and 400,000 visitors each day and continues to be an alluring draw for shoppers from around the globe.

After our visit to the Grand Bazaar, we will return to your hotel.

Day 3:  Half Day Bosphorus Cruise and Istanbul - Ankara (flight)

We will meet in your hotel lobby and begin the day with a visit to the city’s Spice Market (Mısır Çarşı, literally “Egyptian Bazaar”) that draws its name from the Ottoman-ruled districts in Egypt that provided the revenue to build the structure in 1660.  Today the Spice Market boasts more than eighty-five shops selling spices, Turkish delight and other sweets, jewelry, souvenirs, and dried fruits and nuts.  We will then board a ferry for a scenic excursion up the Bosphorus.  From the comfort of boat’s lounge, take in the city's dramatic skyline, filled with Ottoman palaces, citadels, and centuries-old mansions on both the European and Asian shores.

In the early evening, we will transfer to the airport for the flight to Ankara.

Day 4:  Ankara – Cappadocia

We will spend the morning visiting the superb Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, which provides a perfect introduction to the complex weave of Turkey's ancient past, housing artifacts carefully selected from just about every significant archaeological site in Turkey.  The museum is housed in a fifteenth-century bedesten (covered market) on the south side of Ankara’s castle.  We then drive to Cappadocia, stopping along the way at Tuz Gölü or Salt Lake, one of the richest salt-beds in the world.  We will also stop at the thirteenth-century Agzikarahan caravanserai (roadside inn), built by the Seljuk sultan, Alaeddin Keykubad I.  We will stay in Cappadocia for two nights.

Day 5:  Cappadocia

Your day begins with an optional hot-air balloon trip over the stunning Cappadocian landscape.  After breakfast, we will visit the Kaymaklı underground city, known in ancient times as Enegup.  Next we’ll see the Paşabaǧ Valley, also known as “Monk Valley,” the celebrated site of the majestic fairy chimneys that mark Cappadocia’s topography as utterly unique.  We’ll then proceed to Avanos, famed for its Anatolian ceramics.  After lunch, we continue on to the Cappadocia's most celebrated attraction, the Göreme Open-Air Museum, a vast monastic complex with richly painted cave-churches first carved by Orthodox monks beginning in the seventh century.  The site contains the region’s best collection of painted cave-churches, and the frescoes’ colors still retain all their original freshness.

Day 6:  Cappadocia - Konya

We will leave for Konya after breakfast.  Konya embodies the historic and the contemporary, the whirling dervish and the global economy.  Serving as the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Empire under Suleyman Shah between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the city was home to the celebrated poet and philosopher, Mevlana Celaleddin (Jalal Al-din) Rumi, founder of the sect known as the “Whirling Dervishes.”  Rumi forms the cultural and religious center of Konya’s identity today, and its most famous building is the Green Mausoleum of Rumi.  Konya harbors other fascinating sights as well, including the Aladdin Mosque and Palace, atop Aladdin Hill, both fine examples of Seljuk thirteenth-century architecture and planning.  Please keep in mind that Konya is known as one of the most religiously conservative cities in Turkey, and modest clothing and behavior is encouraged.  We will stay overnight in Konya.

Day 7: Konya – Pamukkale

Next we will visit Pamukkale (literally “Cotton Castle”), an absolutely unique natural wonder, as well as a spectacular archaeological site with unusually well-preserved ancient ruins.  The name derives from the cottony appearance of the site’s travertines, white or light-colored calcareous rock deposited by the area’s rich mineral springs.  Just above the travertines lies Hierapolis, founded circa 190 BCE as a curative center by Eumenes II of Pergamon.  Its spectacular Roman theater, built in stages by Roman Emperors Hadrian and Septimius Severus, could seat more 12,000 spectators.  A path from the theater leads up the hill to the fascinating Martyrium of Saint Philip the Apostle, an intricate octagonal structure on the very spot where Saint Philip was supposedly martyred.  We will stay overnight in Pamukkale.

Day 8: Aphrodisias - Ephesus - Şirince

After breakfast we will visit the Roman city of Aphrodisias, set among beautifully scenic mountains.  In Greek times, the site was dedicated to Aphrodite, the goddess of love and fertility.  Our tour of Ephesus begins with the House of the Virgin Mary in the hills above the ancient city, where she is believed to have spent her final years.  The second largest city in the Roman Empire, one of the greatest seaports of the ancient world, commercially prosperous, and an important center of early Christian practice, Ephesus was first established at the mouth of the Cayster River (Küçükmenderes, “Little Meanderer”) between 1500 and 1000 BCE.  Long a sacred site for Christians due to its association with several biblical figures, including Saint Paul, Saint John the Evangelist, and the Virgin Mary, Ephesus hosted the third Ecumenical Council in 431 CE.  The extensive ruins include the Temple of Artemis, the Library of Celsus, the Gymnasium, the Agora, and a magnificent array of terrace houses still under active excavation.  After touring Ephesus, we will visit either the Basilica of Saint John or the Ephesus Museum.  We then leave for the village of Şirince, where we will stay overnight.

Day 9: Pergamum - Troy - Çanakkale

After breakfast, we will travel to Bergama, more famously celebrated as the ancient Greek city of Pergamon.  A major center for culture, commerce, and medicine, and teeming with philosophers, scientists, and artists, Pergamon boasted an outstanding library, a famous school of sculpture, excellent public buildings and monuments, and numerous celebrated art works of the ancient world.  We will visit the Acropolis by cable car, then the theatre and the library, whose 200,000 volumes were bequeathed by Mark Anthony to Cleopatra.

We then visit the ancient city of Troy, famous the world over as the site of the epic siege recounted in Homer’s Iliad.  Fully nine civilizational layers extend beneath the surface, all atop a hill with sweeping views of the Aegean Sea.  Conquered many times, destroyed by earthquakes, and rebuilt over millennia, today all that lies visible are the city’s foundations.  Exercise your imagination as you wander the site, and try to picture the glories of the ancient city described so eloquently by Homer.

From Troy we depart for Çanakkale and an overnight stay.

Day 10:  Gallipoli - Istanbul

After an early breakfast, we will drive to the Gallipoli Peninsula to view the cluster of World War I battlefields where so many perished.  Soldiers from around the world were stationed here for about eight months in 1915 and fought against the Ottomans to open the Dardanelles Strait to Allied warships.  The Ottoman army eventually prevailed, but the losses on both sides were enormous.  More than 250,000 soldiers died in the fighting, in trenches often only ten meters apart.  Gallipoli is often visited by Australian, New Zealand, and British travelers, as their forefathers comprised the bulk of the Allied troops.  Especially on Anzac Day, April 25th, thousands of Australians and New Zealanders travel to the Gallipoli Peninsula to commemorate the dead on both sides.  A visit to the battlefields, cemeteries, and museum has become something of a pilgrimage for Australians and New Zealanders.  Today, the Gallipoli battlefields are silent, preserved as a national park adorned with marble and bronze commemorative monuments.

After touring the battlefields we depart for Istanbul, where we will spend the night.

Day 11:  Return

After breakfast, we will accompany you to the airport for your return flight.

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 Private Tours Turkey